Removal Heavy Metals and Arsenic


The incoming feedwater should be conditioned to allow for permeable cake layer build up on the membrane. This can be done by oxidizing the feedwater with Ozone, NaOCl, H2O2 or KMnO4 to reduce the amount of hydrophobic organic elements and to precipitate any dissolved iron & manganese. This should be followed by a coagulation process with either Ferric or Alum, to reduce organic carbon and create flocs that are permeable when deposited on the membrane. This ensures a stable flux operation with a flat permeability curve.